Approved by the State Council of China, the National Development and Reform Commission of China recently issued the "14th Five-Year Plan" New Urbanization Implementation Plan, which systematically arranges the key tasks of new urbanization construction during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period. A major measure of the National New Urbanization Plan (2021-2035). China's urbanization rate has exceeded 64.7%. Entering the middle and late stages of urbanization development, urban development must shift from "extensional expansion" to "connotative development". It is necessary to solve some outstanding problems accumulated in the process of rapid urbanization. Short-board risks, but also to effectively meet the diverse and quality needs of different groups. To this end, the "Implementation Plan" makes special arrangements for promoting the construction of new cities, emphasizing that people's cities should be built for the people and people's cities should be built for the people, accelerate the transformation of development methods, and build livable, resilient, innovative, smart, green, and humanistic cities.
1. Building a comfortable and convenient livable city
A livable city embodies the needs of urban residents for a better life. The "Implementation Plan" firmly grasps the people's most direct and most realistic livelihood issues, and proposes to increase the supply of inclusive and convenient public services, improve municipal public facilities, orderly promote urban renewal and transformation, and improve the urban housing system. Construction key tasks.
The first is to expand the supply of education, medical care, elderly care, childcare, and community services, and to promote balanced and inclusive development of public services. Scientifically arrange compulsory education schools and strengthen the construction of ordinary high schools. Strengthen the diagnosis and treatment capabilities of primary medical and health institutions, and form a compact urban medical group. Improve the service level of public elderly care institutions, support the healthy development of private elderly care institutions, promote the combination of medical care and elderly care, and expand the supply of nursing beds. Expand the supply of nursery places for infants and young children under the age of 3, vigorously develop public kindergartens, and increase the number of inclusive kindergarten places. Optimize the comprehensive service facilities in the community and create a convenient living circle in the city for a quarter of an hour.
The second is to make up for the shortcomings of municipal public facilities and improve the ability of urban operation guarantee. Optimize the network layout of bus and subway stations, build an urban road network system of "narrow roads, dense road networks, and micro-circulation", with parking facilities mainly built with parking lots, supplemented by off-street public parking lots, and supplemented by on-street parking system, and improve charging facilities in residential quarters and public parking lots. Promote the construction of underground pipe networks such as water, electricity, heat, etc., and implement the underground comprehensive pipe gallery model in the new city, new district and development zone according to local conditions.
The third is to establish a housing system with multi-subject supply, multi-channel guarantee, and simultaneous renting and purchasing, so as to better meet the housing needs of new citizens. Consolidate the main responsibility of the city government, support reasonable demand for self-occupation, and curb investment and speculative demand. Cultivate and develop the housing rental market, revitalize the stock housing resources, improve the long-term rental policy, and gradually make the rental and purchase housing have the same rights to enjoy public services. We will expand the supply of affordable rental housing, focusing on large cities with high population inflows.
The fourth is to promote urban renewal and transformation in an orderly manner, and improve the functional quality of existing spaces such as "three districts and one village". Promote the construction of supporting facilities such as water, electricity, air and information in old communities and the maintenance of public parts of the community, basically complete the transformation of old factories in big cities, promote the development of a number of large old blocks into new cultural, tourism, commercial consumption clusters, and adapt a number of urban villages to local conditions. Transform into an urban community or other space. Pay attention to the renovation and revitalization of existing buildings, prevent the arbitrary demolition of old buildings, relocation of residents, and felling of old trees, and explore the mode of government guidance, market operation, and public participation.
2. Building Safe, Sensitive and Resilient Cities
High population and economic agglomeration exacerbates the operational risks and vulnerabilities of cities. In recent years, some cities have caused serious loss of life and property due to disasters such as heavy rainstorms, exposing the outstanding shortcomings of Chinese cities in terms of lifeline facilities and shelters. The "Implementation Plan" focuses on building a safe, sensitive and resilient city, and proposes a series of key tasks in terms of disaster prevention and mitigation, flood control, public health, and pipeline network renewal.
The first is to improve the institutional mechanism and facility system for disaster prevention and mitigation, and enhance the city's ability to withstand shocks. Adhere to paying equal attention to preventing external floods and controlling internal waterlogging, and taking both engineering measures and ecological measures, basically forming a drainage and waterlogging prevention engineering system with source emission reduction, pipe network discharge, simultaneous storage and drainage, and emergency response to exceeding the standard, and the phenomenon of "city looking at the sea" will no longer occur. Take measures such as relocation avoidance and engineering management to prevent and control geological disasters, carry out seismic identification and reinforcement and reconstruction of important buildings, and build fire barriers in forests, grasslands and urban areas. Rationally arrange emergency shelters, improve lifeline backup facilities such as water supply, power supply, and communications, build a comprehensive national reserve base, and optimize the distribution network for important livelihood commodities, epidemic prevention materials, and emergency materials.
The second is to build a public health prevention and treatment system, and improve the capacity of epidemic monitoring, early warning and disposal. Strengthen the construction of disease prevention and control institutions, build at least one biosafety second-level laboratory in prefecture-level cities, and improve the ability of county-level disease control centers to detect and deal with outbreaks. Strengthen the ability of treatment, cities at the prefecture level and above will build infectious disease hospitals or relatively independent general hospitals with infectious disease areas, and county-level hospitals will improve the ability to monitor, diagnose and treat infectious diseases. Improve the ability to combine epidemic prevention and control, and newly renovated large-scale public facilities can be quickly transformed into conditions for treatment and isolation places.
The third is to promote the renewal and reconstruction of the urban pipeline network and eliminate the hidden dangers of aging pipelines. Comprehensively promote the aging and renovation of gas pipelines, and coordinate the promotion of aging and renovation of other pipelines such as water supply, drainage, and heating in cities and counties. Guide all localities to coordinately promote the construction of pipe corridors in accordance with local conditions in the renovation and reconstruction of old urban pipe networks, and coordinate the laying of various pipelines. Improve the normalized management and protection mechanism to ensure stable and safe operation of facilities.
3. Building a dynamic and innovative city
Cities are the core carriers for gathering innovation elements and sourcing innovation achievements. The "Implementation Plan" puts forward specific requirements around optimizing the urban innovation environment, reducing innovation costs, and promoting the transformation of achievements. First, better play the role of various innovation platforms. Strengthen innovation functions such as national independent innovation demonstration zones, high-tech industrial development zones, and economic and technological development zones, and build mass-creation spaces such as low-cost, complete elements, convenient, and open incubators. The second is to create a good environment for innovation and entrepreneurship. Promote the opening of scientific research platforms and data to enterprises, encourage large enterprises to open up resources, scenarios and needs to small and medium-sized enterprises, and simplify the approval conditions for production and operation of enterprises. The third is to optimize innovative talent services. Promote the growth, agglomeration and functioning of innovative and applied skilled talents, and improve the residence and residence policy for foreign talents.
4. Building an efficient smart city
The construction of smart cities is an important juncture for the simultaneous promotion of urbanization and informatization. The "Implementation Plan" proposes three tasks to improve the intelligent level of urban governance capabilities. One is to build high-quality new infrastructure. Promote the large-scale deployment of fifth-generation mobile communication (5G) networks to ensure coverage of all cities and counties, and expand the coverage of gigabit optical networks. The second is to improve the service capabilities of digital government. Implementing the universal access to urban data, the unified management of urban operations, the unified administration of government services, and the sharing of public services through one website, to enhance the capabilities of urban operation management, decision-making assistance, and emergency response. The third is to enrich the application scenarios of digital technology. Develop remote office, distance education, telemedicine, smart travel, smart community, smart security and smart emergency response, etc., so that the people have more sense of gain, happiness and security.
5. Building a clean and low-carbon green city
Promoting the formation of a green and low-carbon cycle of urban production, lifestyle and construction and operation mode is an inevitable choice for building a beautiful China and achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. The "Implementation Plan" clarifies the key requirements for green city construction in terms of strengthening ecological restoration and environmental protection, and promoting low-carbon production and life. One is to maintain the urban ecological space. Build urban green corridors according to local conditions, create street green spaces, wetlands and country parks, strengthen the conservation of urban wetland ecology and water environment such as rivers, lakes, and coastal areas, and create an ecological network intertwined with blue and green. The second is to strengthen urban environmental protection. Strengthen the coordinated control of multiple pollutants and coordinated regional governance, strengthen the management of urban air quality compliance, promote the matching of domestic sewage treatment plants and networks, and pay equal attention to mud and water, basically eliminate inferior V-class state-controlled sections and urban black and odorous water bodies, and cities at the prefecture level and above are basically adapted to local conditions. Establish a household waste classification and treatment system. The third is to promote low-carbon production and life. Grasp the transformation of the energy structure, which is the "bull nose" of carbon reduction, develop distributed energy sources such as rooftop photovoltaics, guide the replacement of coal with electricity and gas in an orderly manner, and promote various clean heating methods such as cogeneration according to local conditions. Encourage the construction of ultra-low energy and near-zero energy buildings, promote the electrification of public service vehicles, and propose actions to create a green life.
6. Building a humanistic city with its charm
Culture is the soul of a city. The "Implementation Plan" has madeNational Development and Reform Commission special arrangements for enriching the spiritual and cultural life of residents and continuing the historical context of the city. The first is to inherit and carry forward the excellent traditional culture. Protect the historical texture, spatial scale, and landscape environment of famous historical and cultural cities and towns and historical and cultural blocks, and promote the integration of intangible cultural heritage into urban planning and construction. The second is to promote the integrated development of cultural tourism. Develop red tourism, cultural heritage tourism and tourism performances. The third is to improve grass-roots cultural services. Improve the functions of cultural venues such as public libraries, build smart radio and television platforms and integrated media centers, and strengthen the construction of national fitness venues.
Source: National Development and Reform Commission